Seventy years of late Qing sentient beings (seventy-three): the opposite track </ p>
When it comes to the Reform Movement of 1898 in 1898, one important topic was the "Strong Learning Society" established three years ago. The establishment of the Association of Strong Learning, as well as the original intention of the founding of "Sino-Foreign Jiu Wen" and "Gung Ho Pao", was to advocate change and publicize the concept of reform. Therefore, the rise and fall of the Qiang Association and the subsequent success or failure of the Reform Movement of 1898 are, in fact, closely linked.
In 1895, the defeat of the Qing government against Japan and the signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki were regarded by the Chinese as the biggest shame since modern times. The erosion of power by the powers has brought a sense of crisis to the Chinese nation and made the people's desire for change more urgent.
At that time, Kang Youwei, though only a newly promoted Liuping Xiaoguan of the capital, spent many years teaching and learning about the public in Wanmucao, Guangzhou to promote the reform of the government and make him famous both in the country and the world. Therefore, when Kang Yourui call for the establishment of strong learning, whether it is high officials dignitaries, or scholars celebrities, have responded to the wind, listed among them.
In the most prosperous when the strong learning, its members are not less than the military aircraft minister, Hanlin Bachelor, such as the top officials in Xinjiang. There are many more military commanders, academics and bureaucrats, and even British envoy Eugene, missionary Timothy, etc., are strongly sponsored by the Society. For more than 200 years since the founding of the Qing Republic, there has never been a political body capable of receiving such strong support from the government and the private sector like the Institute for Strong Learning.
After Beijing Strong Academy was established, Kang Youwei rushed to Shanghai again to set up the Shanghai Strong Learning Society and got the strong support of acting Governor-General Zhang Zhidong. If we can unite all the powerful political forces in the CSCE, it was invincible at the time in China's political arena.
But soon, Qiangsheng would fall apart because of the misunderstanding among its members. In 1898, when Kang Youwei initiated the establishment of the "National Security Council" again, his momentum was far from strong.
Almost all the power to send officials, are not among the parliament, be regarded as a good hand beat a pulpy. Emperor Guangxu relied mainly on these gang of young officials as a team to carry out reforms of his own, so that the Reform Movement of 1898 had inherent defects.
Later, in his self-composing chronology, Kang Youwei recalled the experience of founding the Association of Strong Learning in that year and concluded the reason for the failure:
"Huang Zhongtao, Liang Xinghai, Yeung Keung Institute of Association charter out of the carved in Shanghai, and Hong Tao (Zhang Zhidong word) to discord with the theory of academic advice do not do, then to Chapter Zhang Dahang, can not stop the report. Zhang Yuanyuan next to the house. Far and near response, and Jiangning do not come all the way, every constraint, that is, no Yang Chong Yi censor, will be carried away. "</ P>
Kang Youwei knew that the dissolution of the Qiang Society was caused by Yang Chongyi's impeachment in front of the Empress. However, he believed that the root cause of the failure of the Qiangxue would lie not in Yang Sung-yi but because Zhang Zhidong's "back ally" had betrayed his earlier agreement with him.
We know that when Kang Youwei arrived in Shanghai, Chang Chih-tung immediately took him to Nanjing and gave him good accommodation for more than 20 days. And in these more than 20 days, Chang Chih-tung and Kang Youwei said "every other day, every night" as if to push their heart and turn them into friends. The constitution of Shanghai Institute of Strong Confederation was also drafted by Kang Youwei and published under the name of Zhang Zhidong.
Beijing Strong Learning Association and Shanghai Strong Learning Association, Zhang Zhidong individual pockets to donate more than 6000 two silver, not count on many other non-monetary assistance. Why did he later suddenly changed his mind, no longer support strong learning will continue to do so?
Kang Youzhi attributed Zhang Zhidong's "back to the league" to "disagree on disagreement." In fact, Kang Youwei has a problem of "misunderstanding" with almost all the students in the world (except his students). Because of his "Confucius Restructuring Tests" and "New School Pseudo-Confucianism Tests", Confucius is described as a politician who has tampered with history. He also said that the Confucian classics of the past were "hundreds of years of useless old studies."
Kang Youwei's view was too deviant at the time and could not be accepted by the overwhelming majority of intellectuals. Hu Hanmin denounced it as "scholarship is plagiarism arbitrary, only bullshit." Later, a scandal was also uncovered. Liao Ping, a member of Zhang Zhidong's aide, alleged that Kang Youwei copied two of his books, "Zhi Sheng Sheng Pian" and "Shi Liu". However, Liang Qichao later pointed out in "An Introduction to the Qing Dynasty" that Kang Youwei's work on Liao Ping was merely a reference and not copied.
Saying back to Kang Youwei and Zhang Zhidong, the conflict between academic views between the two is in fact just an appearance. The deeper reason lies in the difference of political opinions.
The late Qing reformers and the Westernization School were able to come together and co-appeal for reform and self-reliance in the context of China's separation of crises. But how much change should be changed, how to change, there is a conflict between the two.
In the past, the die-hards and the Westernizationists had a "battle for the body," and now the Westernizationists and the Reformist argue that "body use." Westernization School summed up, is "middle school, supplemented by Western learning; middle school as a body, western learning is useful", no matter how changes in law, but the Confucian Dafa, ancestral avenue can not be changed.
In 1898, Zhang Zhidong made a "Encouraging Learning" article, which summed up and sublimated the thoughts of the Westernization School on the issue of physical use in the past. He pointed out that "the Four Books, the Five Classics, the Chinese historical events and the political books are the Old Learning, the Western Politics and the Western Arts , The history of the West as the new school. Old school for the body, the new school for the use, not to the partial waste. "If the old school one go, will lead to" evil atrocities, cross the world. To no peace, I fear the curse of China, not universal, but in Kyushu carry on!
However, Kang Youwei not only failed to abandon his old school, but also abandoned his old law. The ultimate goal was to establish Emperor Guangxu and establish a capitalist country with constitutional monarchy. The first practice that Kang Youwei tried to abandon the old law was the unauthorized publication of imperial edicts (the decree handed down to ministers by the emperor, generally classified as confidential) in the Journal of the Hong Kong Polytechnic, and the reign of Chronology that used the Chronicle of the Qing Dynasty instead of the Qing Dynasty.
Kang Youwei this behavior, no doubt at that time is to take the big malabal steps. If Chang continued to support Kang You-wei, it would be easy to be grateful if he had the heart of rebellion, which would put him in an irredeemable position.
Therefore, Zhang Zhidong ordered the suspension of publication of the "Gazette", which runs counter to Kang Youwei, but a last resort. Kang Youwei accused Chang Chih-tung of unilaterally "backing the alliance" and for Chang Chih-tung it is indeed not fair enough.